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 bacterial gummosis 
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Joined: Sun Apr 20, 2008 9:00 pm
Posts: 21
Location: Chehalem Mountain
Post bacterial gummosis
We just shovel pruned a cherry tree foolishly bought at Home Depot early this year which quickly developed gummosis. My understanding is that this is caused by pseudomonas. All the trees around it are apples. Any idea what kind of fruit tree would be resistant/immune which I could plant in the hole left by the tree? Soil has been removed from the hole. I already have plenty of apples.


Mon Oct 17, 2011 5:56 am
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Joined: Tue Dec 28, 2004 9:09 am
Posts: 138
Location: Canby, OR Z8
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
I'm not sure to what extent you should be worried about the soil in that hole. The bacteria will find your trees regardless. However IMO you are right to look for fruit trees that are resistant to bacterial diseases. Sweet cherries are quite susceptible, as are most stone fruits. That is one reason among many I gave up growing sweet cherries. Apples are great for their ability to resist fatal diseases, but you have enough already. Here are some I would suggest:

Persimmon
Asian Pear
Fig

Figs and Persimmons as far as I can tell have no disease or insect problems at all, and only minimal bird problems. Asian Pears will still have Coddling Moth, but don't get scab.

That's only a start. There's lots of other more exotic choices available which others are sure to point out.


Mon Oct 17, 2011 8:06 am
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Joined: Tue Jan 19, 2010 12:21 pm
Posts: 43
Location: McMinnville, OR
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
WOW,

The gumming of the cherry tree was a reaction to injury from insect or mechanical damage, it wasn't a big deal! It could have been easily treated.
The soil didn't have anything to do with it, and is not infected from the tree.

It is OK to get rid of a tree if you want to but your reaction to gumming was IMHO way over the top

Randy
Yamhill County Master Gardener


Mon Oct 17, 2011 9:12 am
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Joined: Sun Apr 20, 2008 9:00 pm
Posts: 21
Location: Chehalem Mountain
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
Good to know. How might I have more reasonably reacted?


Mon Oct 17, 2011 11:50 am
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Joined: Sun May 15, 2005 10:57 am
Posts: 1329
Location: Portland, OR
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
I spray mine with bacterial compost tea. We had a very rough Spring. I also think aggressive pruning in dry weather really helps them.
John S
PDX OR


Mon Oct 17, 2011 9:48 pm
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Joined: Tue Jan 19, 2010 12:21 pm
Posts: 43
Location: McMinnville, OR
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
kartini wrote:
Good to know. How might I have more reasonably reacted?


Cultural control: Bacterial canker is best managed through the use of many different tactics.

1. Plant resistant cultivars and/or rootstocks. For example, F12-1 Mazzard rootstock with scions from virus-tested (and found to be free of all known viruses), canker-free trees has been very useful. Make buds or grafts at least 12 to 15 inches away from the trunk. Mazzard seedling and Gisela 6 rootstocks are also useful.
2. Do not interplant new trees with old trees which are a major source of the bacteria.
3. Locate orchard in an area less likely to be affected by frost. If planting in the spring, plant orchards after frost is likely to occur. Prevent winter injury by painting trunks white and avoiding late season fertility.
4. Test soil for ring nematodes before planting. Also test for pH and other physical characteristics that can be corrected prior to planting.
5. Provide optimal soil conditions for growing cherries including attention to pH and nutrition. Annually monitor for adequate nutrient levels such as nitrogen. Keep irrigation off above ground parts for the first few years.
6. Control weeds.
7. Delay dormant pruning until January or February. Summer pruning should be done after harvest, when weather is dry. Make heading cuts after planting only during dry weather when rain will not occur for at least a week after pruning.
8. Completely remove infected trees or branches girdled and killed by cankers. Do not allow trees to regrow from roots or trunks left after a major trunk canker has been removed.
9. In summer, small cankers may be cut out using the following method. Cut away bark above and around the edges of the infected area. Use sharp tools, and leave wound margins smooth and neat. In nonirrigated orchards, wounds may be left uncovered during summer but should be treated with a wound dressing before fall rains begin. In sprinkler-irrigated orchards wounds may be soaked frequently, so they should be covered with a dressing as soon as possible after cutting. Sterilize all pruning tools between cuts with 10% Clorox (bleach) solution or shellac thinner (70% ethyl alcohol).
10. Cauterizing cankers using a hand-held propane burner has been used with some success in New Zealand.
11. Scoring tree trunks has been practiced by Willamette Valley growers for several years. Grower testimonials point to some benefits but there has been no research on this possible efficacy of the practice. A sharp pocket knife is used to make a vertical shallow cut in the tree trunk. The resulting wound tissue that develops is supposed to resist canker development and prevent trunk girdling. Knives should be disinfected between trees.

Chemical control: Copper-based products have not worked well under conditions favorable for disease development. Bacteria resistant to copper products have been detected throughout our cherry growing regions, which compromises chemical control tactics. In small plot disease control trials it is not unusual to find copper treated trees with more disease than trees without any treatment. Heavy use of copper products is not recommended as concentrations in the soil can build up to toxic levels after several decades of use.

Focus on cultural control tactics first and supplement with chemical control. Traditional recommendations encourage the first spray to occur in October before fall rains, followed by another application in early January. Growers should consider adjusting the timing of sprays to coincide with leaf fall. Thorough coverage is needed. Protecting heading cuts made after planting a new orchard is also important. Protect both orchard and nursery trees (sweet cherry, prune, and plum). Some growers use low rates of copper-based products during bud break to reduce symptoms of dead bud.

1. Bordeaux 12-12-100.
2. Champ WG at 8 to 16 lb /A. Champion WP can be used for organic production. 24-hr reentry.
3. C-O-C-S WDG at 8 to 12 lb/A plus dormant spray oil. 24-hr reentry.
4. Copper-Count-N at 6 quarts/100 gal water. Use only 2 to 3 quarts/100 gal water during bloom. 12-hr reentry.
5. Cueva at 0.5 to 2 gal/100 gal water/A. 4-hr reentry.
6. Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss at 5 to 8 lb/A. 48-hr reentry.
7. Kocide 3000 at 3.5 to 7 lb/A plus 1 pint superior-type oil/100 gal water. 48-hr reentry.
8. Nordox 75 WG at 5 to 13 lb/A. 12-hr reentry.
9. Nu-Cop 50 DF at 8 to 12 lb/A. Nu-Cop WP can be used for organic production. 24-hr reentry.

References:
Kennelly, M. M., Cazorla, F. M., de Vicente, A., Ramos, C. and Sundin, G. W. 2007. Pseudomonas syringae Diseases of Fruit Trees: Progress Toward Understanding and Control. Plant Disease 91:4-17.


Thu Oct 20, 2011 9:16 am
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Joined: Fri Dec 30, 2011 12:19 am
Posts: 1
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
Recommendations for the control of the Bacterial Gummosis of the cherry are made in the Northwest along three lines: (1) the removal of cankers; (2) the protection of susceptible trunks and limbs with coarse cloth or burlap; (3) the use of resistant seedlings and the growing of resistant varieties.


Fri Dec 30, 2011 12:22 am
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Joined: Sun May 15, 2005 10:57 am
Posts: 1329
Location: Portland, OR
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
Is there any other recommended manner of removing cankers other than by torch as Randy mentioned?
Thanks
John


Sat Dec 31, 2011 6:06 pm
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Joined: Tue Oct 23, 2012 5:44 pm
Posts: 1
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
My parents have three acres of Raineer and Sam cherries, planted in ~1985. They are located between Albany and Lebanon on level ground. At this point they are appear very diseased, with a lot of dead wood and a small harvest. One common symptom is small holes in leaves. I haven't noticed aphids or curled leaves, only a fair amount of lady bug larvae in the spring. I would reallly like to rejuvenate it and was considering a heavy, late summer pruning as a start. I wanted to ask what suggestions anyone might have. I would prefer organic sprays if at all possible. Thanks very much.


Mon Nov 12, 2012 10:47 pm
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Joined: Sun May 15, 2005 10:57 am
Posts: 1329
Location: Portland, OR
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
Do your pruning in dry weather. Diversity helps a lot. I have one extremely healthy sweet cherry surrounded by many other varieties of different fruits, vegetables and flowers, my wife being the prettiest of the flowers.
John S
PDX OR


Wed Nov 14, 2012 9:10 pm
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Joined: Sun Aug 06, 2006 5:03 pm
Posts: 80
Location: Vancouver WA
Post Re: bacterial gummosis
Sorry to say:
Cherry trees come under lots of pressure around these parts. Bacterial psuedomonas is a big problem here and it can also happen that your trees contain viruses. Either one of which the tree will carry with it internally and it will "stick" there forever. The only experts that can define whether or not your trees contain one or more viruses are located in Prosser WA and they expect some samples and fees mailed to them. I'm not sure if your cherry varieties are "recommended" for here (you or somebody would have to check the research list of more resistant varieties from Mount Vernon WA) but if they are not of the most resistant to bacteria they will be hard to keep going.

Virus is a very easy check too.

By the way I have 'Early Burlat' cherry for about 18 years as a recommended variety that I did some home work about before planting it. I never spray or cover up anything on it and it's still going strong. I'm convinced Early Burlat is going to out live almost any other sweet cherry out there, but it blooms a bit early right in the middle of peak rain and crops are usually small for that reason.


Thu Nov 15, 2012 10:45 pm
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